The Beauty in Roth Accounts

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The most common type of retirement accounts are traditional Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) and company sponsored traditional 401(k) plans, both of which are funded using pre-taxed dollars. The goal of these accounts is to accumulate retirement assets by deferring current year taxes and reducing your taxable income. Later, when funds are withdrawn, either voluntary or as part of a required minimum distribution upon reaching age 70.5, the accumulated earnings and contributions are subject to ordinary income tax. In addition to this, if you are below age 59.5 and you withdraw funds you could be subject to an additional 10% tax penalty.

“Cue the Roth IRA.” One alternative to popular IRAs and traditional 401(k) plans is the Roth IRA and Roth 401(k) (“Roths”). Contributions to both consist of after-tax funds. The accumulated earnings and contributions are not subject to income tax upon withdrawal. In addition to this, there are no required minimum distributions for Roths until the account has reached a non-spouse beneficiary. Although no current tax break is received, there are several arguments as to why Roth accounts can be a significant attribute to your portfolio and to your estate planning. As we will discuss below, the Roth has the ability to grow income tax-free for future generations.

 Contributions:

Funding a Roth account can occur in one of two ways; either through yearly contributions, currently limited to $6,000 per year if below age 50 and $7,000 if above age 50 for 2019 Roth IRA accounts. In addition to this, contributions may be limited for Roth IRAs if your income is between $193,000 and $203,000, for married filing jointly, and you are ineligible to contribute if your income is higher than these figures. Roth 401(k) contributions limitations are currently set at $19,000 per year per employee, with an available catch-up contribution of up to an additional $6,000 if age 50 or older. Contributions to Roths are typically more beneficial for young people because these funds will likely grow tax-free for a longer period of time and they generally have a lower current income tax bracket.

Conversions:

The IRS allows you to convert traditional IRAs to Roth IRAs without limitation. You simply have to include the converted amount as ordinary income and pay the tax. Converting traditional IRA funds to Roth is certainly not for everyone. Generally speaking, conversions may only be considered beneficial if you are currently in a lower tax bracket now, than when the funds will be distributed in the future. If you are in the highest tax bracket, it may not make sense to complete a Roth conversion. If you do not have available taxable funds, non-IRA funds, to pay applicable taxes, then a conversion may not be the best strategy for you. Lastly, conversion strategies are not usually recommended if you will have a need for your traditional IRA or Roth funds during the course of your lifetime(s).

Example:

In the right circumstances, a Roth conversion strategy may hold great potential to transfer large sums of after-tax wealth to future generations of your family. For example, let’s assume a conversion of an $800,000 traditional IRA. Of course, this would typically be done over the course of several years to limit the amount of taxes paid on the conversion. However, following the completion of the conversion, these funds will continue to grow tax-free over the course of the converters’ lifetime (and spouse’s lifetime). Assuming a 30 year lifespan, at an average rate of 5% per year, this would amount to close to $3,500,000 at the end of 30 years; a $2.7 million tax-free gain. For the purpose of this example, let’s also assume these Roth funds skip over the converters’ children to a future generation of four potential grandchildren. Split evenly, each grandchild would hypothetically receive $875,000. At this point, the grandchildren generally would be required to take a small required distribution, however, the bulk of these Roth funds would grow-tax free until the grandchild reaches 85 years of age.  Assuming they receive these Roth funds at age 30, it’s possible each grandchild could receive $5,600,000 of tax-free growth, assuming a 6% average yearly returns. For this example, the estimated federal tax cost of converting $800,000 in IRA funds may be close to $180,000, assuming conversions remain within the 24% tax bracket year-over-year. An estimated state tax cost may vary by state, however, some states such as IL, TN and FL do not tax IRA conversions. Now, if we multiply the $5.6 million times 4 (for each hypothetical grandchild) and add the $2.7 million of appreciation during the first 30 years, this is a total of $25.1 million of potential tax-free growth over 85 years. This obviously has the potential to be a truly amazing strategy. Note that because of the rules that enable people to stretch out distributions of an inherited Roth, the people who benefit the most are young.

To review if Roth strategies may be a good addition to your overall planning, please contact DWM and allow us to assist you in this process.

Retirement Strategies You Shouldn’t Overlook: Back-Door Roths & QCDs

irarotheggsWithin the last several days, President Obama released his 2017 budget proposal to the public. Included in the proposal were many provisions that targeted retirement income. Between this proposal targeting retirement income and the Bipartisan Budget signed last year that eliminated Social Security claiming strategies, it sure seems retirement strategies are being picked on quite a bit lately. But let’s remember, the President’s proposal shouldn’t be seen as anything more than a “wish-list”. While the “wish-list” provides a good indication of where the administration may be heading, it could take years before any of the provisions gain traction. In the meantime, it’s important to take advantage of the retirement strategies available to us.

One strategy that the President’s proposal would eliminate but is still available this year is known as a “backdoor” Roth. A Roth IRA is funded with after-tax dollars which allows the funds to grow tax-free. In addition, Roth IRAs do not require a minimum distribution to be taken. The limitation with Roth IRAs is that higher earners are not allowed to contribute to these accounts. In the spirit of the law, this would only give these individuals access to a traditional IRA. Traditional IRAs are funded with pre-tax dollars which are then taxed upon withdrawal. These accounts also require a person to take a minimum distribution starting at age 70 ½. By using a “backdoor” approach, these higher earners can have the benefit of contributing money to a Roth IRA. The sequence of action would be for the person to contribute to a nondeductible IRA, then convert to a Roth immediately afterwards. If the taxpayer does not have any pre-tax funds in their IRA, the conversion can be made without tax.

Late in 2015, Congress made permanent a few tax provisions that were set to expire at year-end. One in particular allows individuals to make charitable donations directly from their traditional IRA without treating the distribution as taxable income. As mentioned above, distributions from a traditional IRA are generally taxable and are required when a person reaches age 70 1/2. This transaction, known as a Qualified Charitable Distribution (QCD), will count towards the required minimum distribution but will not be treated as taxable income. To be considered a QCD, the individual must be age 70 ½ or older, the distribution must be paid to a public charity, the full payment must qualify as a charitable contribution and the distributions must be a direct transfer from the IRA trustee to the charity.

Being that the QCD is excluded from taxable income, the charitable donation itself cannot be deducted on an individual’s tax return. At first glance, this may seem to provide no real tax benefit. Why not just include the distribution as income and take the deduction? For many people, this may be the right strategy. For those individuals that are subject to itemized deduction phaseouts and the 3.8% Medicare tax on investment income, a QCD can help minimize or avoid these consequences. In addition, excluding IRA distributions from income will lower adjusted gross income (AGI) and may make it easier to deduct medical expenses and miscellaneous expenses subject to 2% of AGI, reduce the taxability of social security benefits and minimize the Medicare Part B insurance premiums.

It’s typically best practice to make your Roth or Traditional IRA contributions early in the year, so they can grow tax-free or tax deferred all year. Most of you will be meeting with your CPA or financial advisor within the next several weeks. This will be a good time to discuss these two strategies and see if they will work for you. Here at DWM, we are always happy and available to have these discussions with our clients, during tax season or not. Please let us know how we can help.