# So Many Numbers: Which Ones Are Important?

Our world is full of numbers. They’re everywhere. Our calendars just moved from 2014 to 2015. We get bombarded continually with numbers representing time, temperature, and, yes, stock market reports. NPR’s Eric Westervelt last week called numbers “the scaffolding that our economy, our technology and huge parts of our life are built on.”

For this blog, I thought it would be interesting to look at the origin of our numbers and then highlight five key numbers that are of real importance to your financial future.

Mr. Westervelt was interviewing Amir Aczel who has written a new book “Finding Zero: A Mathematician’s Odyssey to Uncover the Origins of Numbers.” Mr. Aczel believes the invention or discovery of numbers “is the greatest intellectual invention of the human mind.” We use Hindu-Arabic numerals. Before that, there were many other systems including the Mayans, the Babylonians, and, yes, the Romans. The big problem with the Roman number system is that it had no zero. The numbers didn’t cycle and hence multiplication or division was almost impossible. Five (V) times ten (X) is 50 or L in the Roman system. Each value was unique in the Roman system whereas in our system, numbers can cycle. Two with a zero after it is 20. And, zero is very important. Without it, numbers couldn’t cycle. It’s the reason that 9 numbers plus a zero allow us to write any number we want. Pretty amazing.

Our world is full of numbers. They’re everywhere. Our calendars just moved from 2014 to 2015. We get bombarded continually with numbers representing time, temperature, and, yes, stock market reports. NPR’s Eric Westervelt last week called numbers “the scaffolding that our economy, our technology and huge parts of our life are built on.”

For this blog, I thought it would be interesting to look at the origin of our numbers and then highlight five key numbers that are of real importance to your financial future.

Mr. Westervelt was interviewing Amir Aczel who has written a new book “Finding Zero: A Mathematician’s Odyssey to Uncover the Origins of Numbers.” Mr. Aczel believes the invention or discovery of numbers “is the greatest intellectual invention of the human mind.” We use Hindu-Arabic numerals. Before that, there were many other systems including the Mayans, the Babylonians, and, yes, the Romans. The big problem with the Roman number system is that it had no zero. The numbers didn’t cycle and hence multiplication or division was almost impossible. Five (V) times ten (X) is 50 or L in the Roman system. Each value was unique in the Roman system whereas in our system, numbers can cycle. Two with a zero after it is 20. And, zero is very important. Without it, numbers couldn’t cycle. It’s the reason that 9 numbers plus a zero allow us to write any number we want. Pretty amazing.

Now, knowing a little more about our number system and with numbers seemingly everywhere, where do we focus our attention? Here are five key numbers that have a big impact on your ability to meet your financial goals:

Percentage of your paycheck that goes to savings/investments. This may be the most important decision in your life. By saving early, you can have a portion of earnings grow in a compound fashion for decades. Furthermore, by “paying yourself” off the top, you limit the amount available for everyday living expenses during your working years. This discipline helps you in two major ways to obtaining early financial independence- first, by creating the fund for “retirement” and second, by reducing the expenses you will likely have during “retirement.” BTW- there is no magic percentage. Everyone’s circumstances are different. Consider an amount of 10-20% of your gross pay.

Your Annual Living Expenses. Monitor your expenses for last year and group them in three categories- needs, wants and wishes. Review the data from a long-term perspective. Spending a considerable amount now on wants and wishes will obviously reduce the amount available in future years. It’s all about choices and accountability. For the most part, you alone can determine and control your level of expenses.

The Asset Allocation of Your Portfolio. This is one of your most important investment decisions. Based upon your risk profile you need to determine how best to split up your investment funds between stocks, bonds and alternatives (which can include real estate). Studies show that 90% of your investment returns are the result of your asset allocation.

The Net Returns on Your Portfolio. Research shows that fees really matter. A \$1,000,000 portfolio that earns 5% net per year will grow to \$4.3 million in 30 years. The same portfolio that earns 4% net per year will grow to \$3.2MM. The difference is \$1.1 million- a 26% reduction. Over long periods, loads, commissions, high operating expenses and management fees can be a significant drag on wealth creation. Low cost passive investments are best for stocks and bonds. Make sure you understand and monitor all fees charged to your portfolio. Make sure you are getting real value for all the fees. And certainly, know what your net returns have been, are expected to be and how they compare to the appropriate benchmarks.

Your Effective (average) and Marginal Tax Rate. Tax costs on earnings, investment returns and other income can be huge, particularly as a result of the increases caused by the Affordable Care Act. You and your advisors should know your tax rates and use them as a key factor in decision making and investment strategy. Furthermore, proactive planning designed to minimize taxes is a must for you and your advisors.

Over the last 45 years, I have worked with clients of all ages, income levels and circumstances. A common thread among those who have achieved or are achieving their financial goals is that they all knew of and monitored these five key numbers regularly, making adjustments as appropriate. And, of course, they use objective, proactive, value driven advisors like DWM to help them as well.

Why not make it a New Year’s Resolution to know and monitor these five key numbers for your financial future? It could change your life.