Financial Literacy: Money Matters!

As you all know, we provide proactive financial advice on matters such as investment management and value-added services such as tax planning, risk management and estate planning to name a few.  Something you probably didn’t know is that earlier this year, we launched a campaign to promote financial literacy for children and young adults!  It is called the Young Investors program.  Some of our clients have recently become the first recipients of this new program!

Financial literacy is a person’s ability to recognize and use the money and other resources he or she has to get what is needed and wanted.  Another way of saying this is that financial literacy is being able to set goals for using financial resources, make plans, and use the plans to meet financial demands and achieve goals.  To achieve financial literacy, a person needs to have experiences with money.  That is why it is important that children begin to learn about money and its use when they are young.

You might not know this, but financial literacy availability for young children is scarce, primarily because the school systems lack time and budget resources to incorporate financial education into the curriculums.  In fact, only 16 states require any instruction in economics between Kindergarten and 12th grade.  Even worse, only 7 states require students to take courses in personal finance.

There’s been a greater awareness of this educational need in the past 10 years and some financial-literacy advocacy groups have begun to take some steps to fill this educational void.  Some have responded by offering summer camps to young children whose parents want to teach their children the basics of money management.  Feedback from many of the attendees is that, believe it or not, they had fun!  Of course, we want to join in on the fun, and we are also excited to be a part of the solution.

We know that a financial foundation is best achieved when started early, reviewed, as well as reinforced often.  It’s important to teach young children even before they are in school about the concept of money, and that it’s not all about spending!  For example, something simple that a parent can start as early as age 3 can have lasting effects for the future.  Consider this:

Activity: Tell your toddler that you’ll give him a cookie now if he wants it, but you’ll give him two cookies if he waits an extra ten minutes. See what he chooses and try to encourage him to wait for the extra cookie.

Lesson Learned: Be patient and wait for a bigger payoff, rather than always going for instant gratification.

Although it might not look like much, it sets the stage for a less impulsive, more thoughtful response, and hopefully not just one involving money in the future!

Thinking about the scenario above, in an article I read the other day from the Wall Street Journal on personal finance summer camps, a 12 year old boy cited some camp attendance takeaways such as stopping and pausing before making purchases and long term planning!  I suppose it’s true that small things do matter!  And more interesting feedback from the camp directors is that many children ages 10-14 didn’t know what stock and bonds were.  Some thought the investments were a form of real estate.  Clearly, more attention needs to be given to this area.

We love the opportunities these summer camps offer and hope to provide some of our own financial education to our client families year round.  With our financial literacy agenda, our Young Investor program is structured with several tiers of age appropriate interactions and dialogue starters on financial matters for our clients to have with their children or grandchildren.  Age appropriate financial suggestions, tools, links to pertinent financial articles and fun activities to engage their minds are some of the content we will be sharing.  With the importance of starting as early as possible, we literally start at the very beginning, with newly born children/grandchildren, and capture all ages through the early 20s.  Specifically, we break out the tiers in roughly 5 year intervals, so age 0-5 years is the first group, 5-10 years is next, then 10-15 years, with 15-20ish years being the last group.  Our goal is that by age 25, the child or grandchild will be more than ready to begin a lifetime of investing!

Even after your children and grandchildren start their careers, it is our hope that they will join our Emerging Investor program, where they can establish their own brokerage accounts with Charles Schwab and have some of the same great DWM advantages and services as their parents and grandparents.  We are happy to help them by protecting and growing a diversified portfolio to preserve assets and provide moderate growth with minimal risk.

With our help, the young children of today will come to ask for financial assistance and have some of the best mentors in their lives, YOU!  And we all know that money is not an elective in life, so let’s keep the dialogue going with our young generation and keep providing them with good ‘sense’!  We hope you find this program to be a valuable experience.  As always, please let us know your thoughts or if you need financial assistance with a young investor in your life.

Tax Efficient Investing

Think of these opposites:  Good/Bad.  Rich/Poor.  Gain/Loss. Joy/Sadness.  Investment Returns/Income Taxes.  Yes, Uncle Sam is happy to take all the joy out of your investment returns and tax them.  That’s why tax efficient investing is so important.

You have three types of investment accounts: taxable, tax deferred or tax exempt.  For taxable accounts, you must pay taxes in the year income is received.  Retirement accounts, IRAs and annuities are examples of tax deferred accounts, in which you pay tax on the income when you take it out. Tax-exempt accounts, like Roth IRAs and Roth 401ks, are not taxed even at withdrawal.

Strategy #1:  Know Your Bracket.  The tax brackets have changed for 2018.  The top federal marginal rate of 37% will hit taxpayers of $500,000 and higher for single filers and $600,000 for married couples filing jointly.  There can be a huge difference between taxes on current ordinary income and taxes on long-term capital gains. Capital gains are the appreciation on your holdings over time and often represent a very significant portion of your total investment return.  Securities held for over a year generally qualify for long-term capital gain taxes, which are taxed at 0% to 20%, with most investors paying 15%. The difference between ordinary and capital gains taxes on your investment income can be substantial.

Strategy #2:  Asset Allocation includes Asset “Location.”  Tax efficient investments should be in taxable accounts, tax inefficient investments should be in tax deferred or tax-exempt accounts.  For example, bonds are tax inefficient.  Interest earned on bonds in taxable accounts is income in the year received and is taxed at ordinary income tax rates.  However, bond interest earned in a tax deferred account is also taxed as ordinary income, but only at withdrawal, when presumably you might be at lower income and tax levels.  Hence, bonds should generally be located in tax deferred accounts, such as IRAs and 401ks.

Stocks are more tax efficient. First, the qualified dividends received on stocks are taxed at the capital gains tax rate, which is likely less than your ordinary income tax rate. And, second, the largest part of your investment return on equities is often your capital gain, which is also generally at 15% tax and is only paid when you sell a security.  Hence, stocks and equity funds are tax efficient and generally should be located in taxable accounts.  Conversely, holding equities in retirement accounts is not generally a good idea because even though the tax is deferred, the ultimate withdrawals will be taxed at ordinary rates, not capital gains.

Alternative investments, which are designed to be non-correlated with bonds and stocks, may generate more ordinary income than tax-efficient income.  Hence, they should generally be located in tax deferred accounts.  Tax-exempt accounts, such as Roth accounts, can hold tax efficient and tax inefficient holdings. Hence, tax-exempt accounts are already tax efficient and can hold all three asset classes; equity, fixed income and alternatives, in appropriate asset allocations without any income tax cost.

Strategy #3:  Grow your Roth Assets.  Because Roth assets are tax-exempt and, therefore, 100% tax efficient, they are the most valuable investment asset you can own; both in your lifetime and your heirs.  Roths only have investment returns, no taxes.  Furthermore, Roth accounts, unlike traditional IRA accounts, do not require minimum distributions when you and/or your spouse reach 70 ½.  Upon your passing, the beneficiaries of your Roth assets can “stretch them” by allowing them to continue to grow them tax-free. However, the heirs will be required to take minimum distributions.

Roths can be funded in a number of ways.  If you have earnings, you can make Roth contributions of $5,500 per year ($6,500 if you are 50 or over) if your income is below a certain threshold.  In addition, if you are working for a company with a 401k plan, that plan may allow Roth 401k contributions. In this case, there are no earnings limitations and you can contribute $18,500 ($24,500 if you are 50 or over.)  You can also convert IRAs to Roths.  This is done by paying income tax on the difference between the amount converted and the cost basis of the IRA. There is no limit of the amount you can convert.  The concept is “pay tax once, have the Roth grow tax-free forever.” Oftentimes this conversion takes place after retirement but before age 70 ½ and is done in an annual installment amount to keep the tax implications within a given tax bracket.   We encourage you and/or your CPA to look at this possibility.

Strategy #4:  Do an Income Tax Projection.  Tax projections are really important, particularly in 2018, with all the new changes brought on by tax reform.  The projection provides information as to your income, deductions, tax bracket, estimated taxes (to minimize surprises and penalties) and, hopefully, also possibilities for tax savings.  We prepare “unofficial” tax projections for our clients for these very reasons.  Investment management must consider income taxes.

Ultimately, your return on investments is your gross return less the income taxes.  Therefore, we encourage you to make your investment portfolio operate as tax efficiently as possible and accentuate the positive; good, rich, gain, joy and investment returns.  Rather than the negative; bad, poor, loss, sad and income taxes.  You should make yourself happy, not Uncle Sam.

Labor Day- A Holiday and a Time to Reflect on the American Dream

Hamdi_Ulukaya.jpgWe hope everyone had a wonderful Labor Day weekend. We certainly did. Labor Day always marks the “unofficial” end of summer. Time for school and work to begin in earnest. It’s also an excellent time to remember the contributions and achievements of American workers and to reflect on their chances of achieving the American Dream, which is “the ideal that every U.S. citizen should have an equal opportunity to achieve success and prosperity through hard work, determination and initiative.”

Last week, I read a very engaging interview in the NYT about Chobani yogurt’s founder, Mr. Hamdi Ulukaya (pictured above) and his quest of the American dream for himself and others.

Hamdi Ulukaya grew up in eastern Turkey with sheep, goats and cows. He and his family spent the spring, summer and fall in the mountains; herding animals and producing yogurt and cheese. They came back to their village in winter time. Hamdi went to a boarding school, but didn’t like it. He left school, got in trouble and then thought he should leave Turkey. A stranger suggested, “Why don’t you go to the United States?” Hamdi wasn’t sure, but decided to take the plunge in 1994, at age 22, and came to America with $3,000 in his pocket.

After several years of university study and odd jobs, in 2002 Mr. Ulukaya was encouraged by his father to start making feta cheese. Years of hard work and struggle ensued with little success. One day, Mr. Ulukaya saw an ad for a fully equipped yogurt plant for sale. Kraft was closing the operation in the dairy region of NY, near where Mr. Ulukaya lived. His attorney checked into it and reported back, “They’re looking for an idiot to unload this on. They probably have environmental issues. And, if they thought yogurt was a good business, they would not be getting out of it.” This was 2005 and at that time Greek yogurt represented about ½ of 1% of the yogurt market.

But, Mr. Ulukaya was convinced he could make it work. He pursued the deal and, on August 17, 2005, he had the “key” to the factory. Today, Greek yogurt is over 50% of the yogurt market. Chobani, which means “shepherd”, went from no sales in 2005 to over $1 billion per year by 2012. It continues to grow as the #1-best-selling Greek yogurt in America. BTW, it’s my favorite.

Chobani started with a few people and now employs thousands. They are known for offering generous wages and benefits and recently gave away equity to its employees. Mr. Ulukaya tells why: “Look, my background is a working-class background. One of my dreams was to make this company a place where everybody’s a partner, and the employees deserved a portion of what they have helped to build. If you make $7 or even $9 per hour, you can’t have a house. You can’t have good food for the kids. Forget vacations.” He continues: “Especially for rural communities, we (the employers) have to start worrying about our own employees, their families and their children’s well-being, and the school, and the firehouse and the baseball field. You have to get involved.”

Chobani needed people for its growth. Coincidentally, at this time people from different parts of the world were being settled in the Utica, NY area near the Chobani plant. Mr. Ulukaya, an immigrant himself, decided to start hiring them: “These are hardworking people-they’ve gone through a lot.” Today roughly 20% (500 to 600 people) of the Chobani workforce are immigrants from 19 different countries. In April 2016, Mr. Ulukaya gave his employees 10% of the shares of Chobani.

Labor Day is a perfect time for a holiday and perfect time to reflect on the American dream. Chobani’s Hamdi Ulukaya is a shining example that the American dream is alive and well. Mr. Ulukaya, now 45 years old, is worth $1.7 billion and is an owner, investor and philanthropist. And, as importantly, Chobani is helping keep the flame of the American Dream alive for its employees; by providing generous wages and benefits, including equity.   All 2,500 Chobani employees, some of them newcomers to the United States from other parts of the world and some whose families have been here for generations, could all celebrate in a very special way on Labor Day. The American dream is alive and well, particularly with entrepreneurs like Hamdi Ulukaya leading the way.

Happy Labor Day: Fun Facts!

Labor Day in the 21st century means time for beaches, BBQ, ballgames and quality time with family and friends. For many, Labor Day signifies the last days of summer. But don’t worry, the official end of summer is September 21st so you still have some time to catch some waves and rays. Although Labor Day always falls on the first Monday of every September, there is a lot more to this holiday weekend than an extra day off from work and great sales. From a survey done by WalletHub, here are 10 facts about Labor Day that you may not know:

  1. 133 million Americans will enjoy a BBQ this Labor Day

 

  1. The average Labor Day shopper will spend $58

 

  1. 25% of Americans plan to get out of town

 

  1. The top three Labor Day destinations include New York City, Chicago, and Las Vegas

 

  1. Labor Day is America’s third favorite holiday behind Christmas/Chanukah and Memorial Day

 

  1. There are approximately 89 running races held over Labor Day weekend

 

  1. The number one hardest working city in America is San Francisco with an 8 hour average work day, and the laziest city in America is Columbia, SC with an average work day of 7.3 hours

 

  1. Labor Day is the unofficial end of hot dog season in America. From Memorial Day to Labor Day there are 818 hot dogs eaten per second

 

  1. Most Americans believe Labor Day is only an American holiday when really it was started in Canada

 

  1. Last but not least, yes, you really can wear white after Labor Day!

From everyone here at DWM, have a great Labor Day Weekend and enjoy some time with the family!

The End of Signing on the Dotted Line

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We all lead busy lives, so it’s important to save time and maximize efficiency whenever we can. The new eSignature feature from Charles Schwab allows you to review, electronically sign, and send back eligible forms to us, making a variety of processes quicker and easier than ever before.

At DWM, we always stay up to date with the latest technology and keep you informed, so we can ensure the best possible experience for our clients. As we learn more about today’s changing technology and the need to stay on top of cybersecurity, going digital allows sensitive client material to remain safely guarded, as well as providing an easier, less burdensome and more accurate onboarding process for everyone.

eSignature is accepted on many new account applications, maintenance forms, and managed account forms, such as:

  • Schwab One Personal accounts
  • Schwab One Trust Accounts
  • Company Retirement Accounts (CRA/Pension Trust)
  • Custodial/Minor IRA Applications
  • Account Closure Forms
  • Designated Beneficiary Plan Agreements
  • Investor Checking Accounts
  • IRA Distribution Forms
  • MoneyLink Applications
  • Transfer Your Account (Into or Out of Charles Schwab)

For a full list of eligible forms, click here. This time-saving eSignature feature is extremely efficient, and it’s easy to use, too! Simply follow the steps below and you’ll be well on your way to mastering electronic signatures.

1)When expecting a form for eSignature, keep an eye out for an email from Charles Schwab that states “Documents for Your Electronic Signature.”

2)Click “Review Documents” at the bottom of that email.

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3)Log into your Schwab account using your Schwab Alliance when prompted. If you don’t know your account information, let us know or contact Schwab Alliance at 1-800-515-2157.

4)Click “Agree/Continue” to agree to the eSignature terms and conditions.

5)Review the document and ensure that it is accurate before signing.

6)When you are ready, choose from two signing options: automatic signature or draw, in which you digitally “draw” your own signature.

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7)Click “Sign” in all places where signature or initial is needed.

8)Click “Finish” to complete the process. DWM will be notified promptly and you will then receive a confirmation email.

 

We could all use some time back in our day, so if you’d like to learn more about eSignature, reach out to us at any time or contact Schwab Alliance at 1-800-515-2157 for more information.

Bull Market Runs Come in All Lengths

 

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Let me help you with the details of the above chart- though it is difficult to read, it’s quite important.   This graph from First Trust reflects the historical performance of the S&P 500 index from 1926 through June 2018. The blue represents bull markets; the red bear markets. It’s obvious that there is a lot more blue on this chart than red. That’s why we encourage you to “stay invested” through the ups and downs of the markets in a risk appropriate, diversified portfolio.

There are 8 bear markets shown. These represent periods of time when markets went down 20% or more. The longest and largest, from 1929-1932, was caused by the Great Depression. This bear market lasted 2.8 years and represented a cumulative decline of 83.4% overall; 47% per year. Ouch. Other bear markets have been much tamer. The average bear market period for the eight periods shown above lasted 1.4 years with an average cumulative loss of 41%. The bear market in 2008-2009 caused by the financial crisis lasted 1.3 years, with a 51% cumulative decline, 41% per year.

There are 9 bull markets shown. The longest and largest occurred after World War II from 1948 to 1963. This bull market lasted 15.1 years and represented a cumulative total return of 936%, or 17% per year. The average bull market has lasted 9.1 years with a cumulative total return of 476%; 21% per year. Some bull markets have been as short as 2.5 years and there have been other longer bull markets of 12.8, 12.9 and 13.9 years.  Our current bull market started in Spring 2009 and has lasted 9.3 years, with a cumulative total return of 350%; 17.5% per year.

At DWM, we are asked the question: “How long can this bull market continue?” This question seems to be based on a concern that a bull market comes with a pre-ordained expiration date; when it runs out of whatever made it go. However, selling equities because a bull market run is longer than average has been a great way to miss out on lots of gains. Remember, bull market runs come in all lengths.

While a bull market may be technically defined as a period of time after a 20% drop (bear market) has reached its end, it’s probably healthier to view a bull market from an economic perspective. Barry Ritholtz in a Friday Bloomberg article defined a bull market as follows: “An extended period of time, typically lasting 10-20 years, driven by broad economic shifts that create an environment conducive to increasing corporate revenue and earnings. Its most dominant feature is the increasing willingness of investors to pay more and more for a dollar of earnings.” This is exactly what we have seen in periods after WWII, the 1980 and 1990s biotech boom and now the maturation of internet, software and mobile companies.

Bear markets are typically brought about by recessions; often when the markets have gotten overheated (such as the dot.com bubble bust in 2000). Bear markets can also be brought on by a financial crisis, as we had in 2008-2009. Recoveries from financial crises are quite different from recoveries from depressions.   A post crisis recovery is marked by slow and erratic economic growth, weak wage gains and disappointing retail sales. Furthermore, investors, after being burned, remain skittish for years. The 2008-2009 crisis scarred consumers and left them more determined to sock away funds.

Case in point, the Wall Street Journal reported Monday morning that the personal savings rate is up to 7.2% from the 3.3% estimated previously. The new number exceeds the 6.4% average savings rate since 1990 and is almost three time the savings rate in 2005. The “wealth effect” that we saw in the mid 2000s that increased spending and dropped savings rates, is not happening now. This news, along with the reduction in corporate taxes, historically low unemployment and continued increased corporate earnings bodes well for a continuation of the current Bull Market despite ongoing negative factors.

Yes, we don’t know how long this bull market will run. And, we’re not going to try to time it. We do know, at some point, this bull market run will come to its natural end. Before it does, we may see more pullbacks (declines of 5% or more) or corrections (declines of 10% or more).   Remember this graph- lots more blue than red- and stay invested.

Mother Nature is in Charge!

Americans are getting a little disaster weary.  From the horrific wildfires out west to torrential rains and flooding all summer in the east, it has been quite a year.  And in the south and east, we all know what August means…hurricane season is upon us!  Mother Nature is getting on our nerves in 2018!

How can we protect ourselves to minimize the risks to our homes, our property and our livelihoods?  Mitigating risks from catastrophic events starts with prevention and planning by both government and individuals.  Prevention can start with using damage-resistant building materials, having elevated home designs, enforcing safe building codes, developing flood plain management systems, securing or removing hazards ahead of storms and by having evacuation or escape plans in place.  FEMA has an 81 page guide of Mitigation Ideas to deal with earthquakes, landslides, floods, hurricanes, hail, lightning, tornadoes, severe winter weather and more.  https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1904-25045-2423/fema_mitigation_ideas_final_01252013.pdf  There are many threats coming from our environment, but many things that can be done to lessen some of the painful aftermath of these occurrences.

We certainly can use property & casualty insurance to plan and prepare for the worst.  In hurricane-prone areas, for example, we have riders for “named storm” or “wind and hail” coverage that comes with our homeowner’s insurance.  The costs of the insurance can be reduced by increasing the amount of a deductible you want to have or, in other words, how much you can afford to pay out of pocket for repairs after a storm.  We also look for extra coverage for those circumstances when there is a widespread event like a hurricane that may drive costs up with higher demand for labor and materials.  Homeowners may want to have an extended coverage rider built in to help with those higher costs.  It is important to evaluate what your risk tolerance is for these situations and how much you want to pay to transfer some of the risk to the insurance company.  If your home is destroyed or badly damaged, do you have a comfortable level of protection for you and your family?

There has been much discussion on the 50 year old National Flood Insurance Program, as well. President Trump recently signed the legislation to extend the debt-ridden program until November 30th.  That means not dealing with necessary reforms until after hurricane season and mid-term elections.  The federal program, which is some $20 billion in debt to the U.S. Treasury, offers subsidized flood insurance to coastal or flood-prone areas where private insurers have pulled out or made it unaffordable.   As it is, the NFIP provides coverage with caps on claims for homes at $250,000 and on property at $100,000.  Many higher-value property owners may choose to also carry “excess” flood insurance to bridge the gap between the federal program caps and the value of their homes and property.

Unfortunately, the reduced premiums from about 5 million NFIP flood insurance policies nationwide cannot adequately support the claims that have come from recent events, including storms like Sandy, Katrina, Harvey, Maria, Irma and Matthew.  And hurricanes aren’t the only cause of flooding.  We have seen some of these epic rainstorms cause significant inland flooding and damage.   As the head of the SC Department of Insurance said recently, “our entire state is in a flood-zone.”  And this may be true for many areas in the South, East and Midwest.  It is clear there is a need for a flood program that can provide support for affected residents after a storm, especially as we see changing climate conditions and rising sea levels. Lawmakers thus far have been unable to find a bi-partisan fix to the financially strained system.

As homeowners and members of our communities, we should certainly do our share to prepare for these natural events and make sure we have a solid plan in place for our families and our property.  We can maintain our property, keep our own emergency fund and can participate in the insurance coverages available to help protect us.  And we should hope and expect that our legislators – local, state and national- will compromise to find solutions to reform existing programs and to prepare disaster plans that can assist all of us in the event of a catastrophic event.

At DWM, we use a holistic approach to evaluating your financial plan, including risk management.  We will help you review all of your property & casualty insurance policies to ensure that you have appropriate coverage for you and your family.  Let’s hope Mother Nature stays peaceful for the rest of the year!

Innovation: Showcasing Efficiency and Tightening Security

Companies in the 21st century are constantly looking for way to move their services to the next level of the digital age. Accessibility, convenience, and speed are major factors that industry leaders always look to improve upon, and Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. is no different.

Over the past few weeks, Schwab has put on several presentations in cities across the nation to showcase their technological advancements in a series they call Schwab Solutions. At DWM, we were lucky enough to attend one of these presentations and learned of a lot of exciting new features and opportunities that we believe can assist our clients. Here are some of the highlights:

  • E-Signature->For existing clients looking to open a new account at Schwab, we can utilize a new process called e-signature to send the documents over to your Schwab portal. Simply let DWM know your intention to open a new account, and we can work up the forms to do so. Once the forms are ready, we can send a request for your e-signature, which will send a notification to your Schwab Alliance account. This will assist in opening your account faster, more securely, and with no paper waste!
  • E-Approval->For check and journal requests (moving money from one account to another at Schwab), we can follow a very similar process to the e-signature process, with e-approval! Once again this reduces processing time, paper waste, and improves document accuracy. Schwab is also working to bring this feature to MoneyLink requests, so stay tuned for that improvement!
  • Mobile Deposit->The Schwab app also allows investors to scan/take a picture of the front and back of a check and upload them for deposit, usually within the same day!
  • The Schwab platform itself is receiving an overhaul in the coming months, which should provide clients with a much sleeker, more intuitive experience. A major difference to come will be a personal value chart, which will display a simplified net worth statistic based on the accounts at Schwab, as well as the ability to add in accounts outside of Schwab (think 401ks)!
  • In addition to the aesthetical changes, the Schwab portal now has much more client interactivity than before, which will allow investors to update various information on their accounts all from within the website, no paperwork involved. These various services include:
    • Updating accounts in case of address change
    • Beneficiary updates on IRAs
    • Tax withholding percentages for IRAs

As with any technological advancement, new security challenges often emerge, and Schwab, as well as DWM, are your first line of defense against these threats. For Schwab’s part, they have bumped up security in some major ways:

  • Whenever a new device is used to access a Schwab portal, a text or e-mail is sent (depending on how the security of the specific account is set-up), to ensure that fraudsters are not trying to access your account information electronically.
  • In addition, Schwab offers a security feature called two-factor authentication, which allows for an app on your phone to provide a six-digit code to follow your Schwab Alliance password, further ensuring that only the account holder can access their sensitive information.
  • Finally, one further security measure clients can choose to utilize is called Schwab Voice ID. With this service, a client calls in and answers some basic questions to the Schwab Alliance team, through which their Voice Biometrics system analyzes the quality of your voice. Then, if any suspicious activity occurs in your accounts, Schwab will call and verify the activity with you, using the Biometrics system to ensure that the voice on that end of the line is actually the account holder.

As far as DWM goes, our stance and determination in protecting our clients’ information remains resolute. We are completely committed to client security, and will continue to both provide education to keep our clients informed of rising threats, as well as keeping ourselves up-to-date about viral issues and staying abreast of any suspicious account behavior. For example, one of the most dangerous areas regarding theft and fraud currently going on are real estate scams. Hijackers will find a way into legitmate e-mail threads regarding wire information for a client buying property, and provide phony wire information. As a result, verbal verification is the new normal. As part of our safeguarding protocol, DWM will be calling the client and/or the title company to verify these wire instructions to ensure that everything goes as planned.

At DWM, we are passionate about protecting our clients and helping them shape their financial future, worry-free. This is seen throughout our wealth management process, from investing to account management, to financial planning. We aim to help clients notice and avoid any landmines that might be hiding in their long-term financial plan. Providing safer, more efficient ways of accessing and updating their accounts, while also actively monitoring for suspicious activity and ensuring accuracy is an effective method of doing so.

Please feel free to stay updated on Schwab’s technological advancements through their “Client Learning Center” page found here:

http://content.schwab.com/learningcenter/

Please also feel free to contact DWM with any questions or concerns regarding either advancements or safety.

At DWM, we are passionate about protecting our clients and helping them shape their financial future, worry-free. This is seen throughout our wealth management process, from investing to account management, to financial planning. We aim to help clients notice and avoid any landmines that might be hiding in their long-term financial plan. Providing safer, more efficient ways of accessing and updating their accounts, while also actively monitoring for suspicious activity and ensuring accuracy is an effective method of doing so.

Biases: Fluid & Fuzzy vs Rational

In a perfect world, we would all make optimal decisions that would provide us with the greatest value and satisfaction.  In economics, the rational choice theory states that when you are presented with options, you would choose that which maximizes your personal satisfaction.  This theory assumes that you make your decision by weighing the costs and benefits, without emotion and external factors.  If it were only that simple.

Enter behavioral economics.  It draws on psychology and economics to try to explain why people sometimes make irrational decisions, i.e. not following predictions of economic models based on a consistently rational, self-interested, and “utility” maximizing approach?  Psychology explains this deviation of behavior from what is expected rationally to be caused by “biases.”  Common examples of biases include:

  • Anchoring- relying too heavily on one piece of information
  • Confirmation-focusing on information that confirms one’s preconceptions
  • Endowment-demanding much more for something owned than what you would be willing to pay to acquire it
  • FOMO- Fear of missing out- paying too much to get into the “game”
  • Loss aversion- valuing the pain of losing twice as much as the satisfaction of making a gain
  • Normalcy- refusing to plan for a potential disaster that has never happened before
  • Recency- predicting the future results by expected recent results to continue

Koen Smets’s recent article in the Behavioral Scientist “There is More to Behavioral Economics than Biases and Fallacies” defines behavioral economics as the field that confronts us with our deeply potentially irrational selves.  “We are bamboozled by biases, fooled by fallacies, entrapped by errors, hoodwinked by heuristics, deluded by illusions.”  Ouch.

This brings to mind Ebenezer Scrooge’s question of the Ghost of Christmas Future:  “Are these signs of things that will happen or may happen?”  Perfect question, Ebenezer.  Actually, there is a widespread misconception that biases explain or even produce behavior.  Biases merely describe behavior that may or may not be followed.  They are simply labels for an observed behavior that contradicts traditional economics’ simplified “rational” expectations.

The conversation about biases is generally negative:  they interfere with our decision making or undermine our health, wealth and happiness.  For example, consider loss aversion.  Ten of thousands of years ago, humans were more concerned about losing a week’s food supply than gaining an extra week’s.  Today, an individual might never invest their cash because of a fear of losing money and have the purchasing power of their funds decreased by inflation.  This loss aversion is part of our evolutionary DNA, but that doesn’t mean that we have to exhibit that behavior.

Biases are tendencies that are not uniformly shared or employed.  Mr. Smet describes human behavior as “fluid and fuzzy.” These days, speed and simplification are keys and behavior based on biases is increasing.  Knowing that people are taking shortcuts, marketing has really stepped up its game.

“Heuristics” are really becoming huge. They are the various techniques we use to solve problems, learn or discover by using shortcuts.  Persuasion heuristics save us time and effort in making many of the hundreds of decisions we are confronted with each day.  Robert Cialdini, author of “Persuasion and Marketing” and political consultant, offers six key principles to persuading (or perhaps hoodwinking) a consumer using heuristics:

  • Authority-the voice or face of authority drives results. (Celebrity endorsements work)
  • Commitment and Consistency-consistent follow through establishes trust (Repetition works)
  • Scarcity-create hype based on time limits and expirations. (I see this every time I go to book a hotel room)
  • Liking-people are persuaded by others liking something. (Tripadvisor)
  • Social Proof- Show evidence of results. (People like to hear positive statistics-whether or not they are true)
  • Reciprocity-Offer discounts, free trials, sample products (people tend to “return a favor”)

We know biases exist. Some of them are in our DNA; some we learn over time.  At the same time, people and companies are aware of these potential biases as they are marketing their products, services, or suggestions.  Certainly, for many small decisions we need to make every day, there is no problem with taking a shortcut and even employing a bias.

However, when it comes to really important decisions, such as your wealth and happiness, it’s time to step up your game and move from fluid and fuzzy to rational.  These very important decisions generally take more time and require more due diligence.   You need to make sure you thoroughly and objectively understand and investigate choices and understand the likely risks and rewards of each.  To keep yourself “bias-free” at these times, you may benefit from having the expertise, skill and objectivity of a wealth manager like DWM who works with these important matters every day.  There’s a time for fluid and fuzzy and a time for rationality.  We’re here to help you when it’s time for rationality. Give us a call.

 

 

 

 

 

HERE COME THE MILLENNIALS!

In only 12 years, 75% of American employees will be Millennials.  By then, even the last of the Baby Boomers will be 66 and on social security (though a few of us might still be working).  Generation X is a smaller cohort and some of its 54-65 year olds will already be retired.  The oldest Generation Zers will only be 34 at that time.   Yes, in 2030, the Millennials, aged 35 to 53, will be the backbone of the economy and country.

What an exciting time to be alive!  Can you imagine all the changes that may occur in the next 12 years?  Just consider that just 14 years ago Blockbuster Video had 9,000 stores and is now down to one last store in Oregon. 2004 was also the year Facebook was launched.

Yes, new reality can be exciting and challenging.  The Millennials bring with them their own expectations of life, work and values.  Those organizations and communities that embrace generational diversity will undoubtedly thrive in a volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous future.

Jennifer Brown, author of “Reversing the Generation Equation: Mentoring in the New Age of Work,” indicates that Millennials “possess the most diverse attitudes, tendencies and requirements of any preceding generation and they are bringing that to work and life and demanding to be welcomed, valued, respected and heard.”  They’ve grown up with being in the center of the activity and expect to stay there.

The Pew Research Center’s “Millennials in Adulthood” takes a look at just how unique this generation is and how the social, political and economic realities in their formative years have shaped them.  Due to a disconnect between Millennials and many organizations not willing to meet them half-way, it’s no surprise that Millennials have experienced greater job dissatisfaction than Generation X and Baby Boomers.

A study conducted by Deloitte showed that 56% of Millennials have “ruled out working for a particular organization because of its values or standard of conduct.”  49% have declined a task assigned to them that was thought to go against personal values or rules of ethics.  According to the study, Millennials are seeking a good work/life balance (more than monetary compensation), their own homes, a partner, flexible working conditions and financial security.  Furthermore, this group does not necessarily defer to seniority as seen in previous generations. For them, respect must be earned.  Which brings us to the concept of “Reverse Mentoring.”

Jack Welch of GE was one of the early pioneers of reverse mentoring.  Twenty years ago, as technological changes were sweeping our country, Mr. Welch encouraged 500 top-level executives at GE to reach out to people younger than them to learn about the internet.  Since then, reverse mentoring has gone beyond technological learning and expanded into ideas, advice and insights.  Organizations such as PWC and AARP are among those who have launched programs.

At PWC, the young mentors are in their early 20s and have been working long enough to understand how it works and short enough to still have a fresh perspective.  The AARP Foundation created a Mentor Up program in 2013 where teens and young adults come together with older generations to keep them current and connected with the younger world.  The young mentor the older mentees on technology and health and fitness.  They also exchange Valentine’s Day cards.  In short, intergenerational connections were made, skills exchanged, understanding obtained and mutual respect and admiration were achieved.

At DWM, we have two excellent young team members; Grant Maddox in Charleston and Jake Rickord in Palatine.  We are just starting a reverse mentoring program at DWM where Grant and Jake will be the mentors and Brett, Jenny, Ginny and I will be the mentees.  Once a month, we set aside lunch time for the mentor to share a topic, theme or idea they are interested in sharing and to explain two-way learning opportunities.  We invest time to learn, get to know one another better and increase our trust and respect for each other.  We are also starting to dismantle the old paradigm that “seniority always knows best.”

Our goal is generational diversity and respect for all.  Yes, the Millennials are coming. And, yes, they come with the most diverse attitudes, tendencies and requirements of any preceding generation.  As they say in World Cup Champion France, “Vive la Difference.”